What is carburetor? Explain types of carburetors in I C Engines

What is carburetor? Explain types of carburetors in I C Engines
Diagram of carburetor

Before we jump to start learning about different types of carburetors in I C Engines, you should know the definition of a carburetor. What is mean by carburetor?

What is carburetor?

In a simple language, for the combustion or burning in the combustion chamber at all operating conditions, we need a proper mixture of air and fuel. To make this proper air-fuel mixture, we need a mechanical device, and that mechanical device is a carburetor. The carburetor regulates the air-fuel ratio and thus, controls the speed of the engine. Fuel used in the process of carburetion is always volatile fuel. Petrol, benzol, and alcohol are some volatile fuels used in the carburetion process.

Read about Solex Carburetor construction, working and advantages

Why carburetors are used in petrol engines, not in diesel engines?

One thing you understand about a carburetor is that, automobile industry use carburetor only in a petrol engine, not in a diesel or compression ignition engine (C I Engine). In a diesel engine, we use hot compressed air coming from turbocharger or respiration(natural) to burn the fuel in the combustion chamber.

Let’s come to the main part of this article,

Types of carburetors in I C Engine:

In this article, we are going to classify types of carburetors based on the direction of air and fuel flow in the carburetor. Depending upon directions of air and fuel, there are three types of carburetors as follows:

1. Updraught carburetors
2. Downdraught carburetors
3. Horizontal or side draught carburetors

What is carburetor? Explain types of carburetors in I C Engines
Diagram of different types of carburetors

Let’s declutter these three types of carburetors one by one.

What is updraught carburetor?

As a name suggest, in updraught carburetors, air enters the carburetor from the bottom side and goes towards the upward side against gravity. This carburetor has to lift the sprayed fuel droplets by air friction and this a main disadvantage of updraught carburetor. In this carburetor, a cross-section of the jet tube is small and thus, the carburetor can not supply the air-fuel mixture at rapid speed during the high speed of the engine. This big disadvantage makes this carburetor defunct or obsolete.

What is downdraught carburetor?

In downdraught carburetor, the flow of the mixture enters the carburetor from the upside and goes towards the downside with the help of gravity. We can also call it as a gravity-assisted carburetor. Due to this up-down characteristic of a carburetor, it usually installed at a level higher than the intake manifolds. This carburetor allows the proper flow of mixture at high and low engine speed.

What is horizontal or side draught carburetor?

This type carburetor used when we have the constraint of space for assembly. In horizontal or side draught carburetor, as a name suggest, the jet tube is placed in a horizontal direction. One more advantage of this type of carburetor is that it reduces the resistance of the flow due to the absence of the right angle mechanism in the intake area.

Read about Carter Carburetor: Construction, working, and diagram

I hope you guys have learned more about carburetors and types of carburetors in I C Engine. If you have any query or wants to discuss or suggest anything about this article, feel free to use our comment section and discuss it with our other readers.

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